Friday, October 18, 2019

Biology, Bioethics and Biotheology (Metr. Hierotheos of Nafpaktos)


By Metropolitan Hierotheos of Nafpaktos and Agiou Vlasiou

The Orthodox Church has its own realm where all the applications of the teaching and work of Christ take place. The Church cures people and helps them to overcome all problems, even death itself and the fear of death.

Christians also live, however, in a world that has its own peculiarities. In the first centuries there were major persecutions and Christians were taken to be martyred, as happens in the Middle East in our own era. They also suffered from the great Christological and Trinitarian heresies, but even today there are many forms of heresy that afflict the body of the Church. Many other social and scientific problems exist as well.

It has been noted that during the early centuries the Fathers of the Church faced problems originating from classical metaphysics, particularly from Neoplatonism, and for that reason they had to define dogmatic terms, so that revelational truth would not be altered. Today there are similar problems due to more recent philosophy, the Enlightenment, existentialism and German idealism.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

The Purpose of the Creation Account in Genesis According to Cyril of Alexandria


By St. Cyril of Alexandria

The divine Moses does not appear before our eyes as one who composed doubtful stories, nor one who launched himself out on this road from simple ambition. He had in mind primarily to contribute to making lives led better. And in fact he did not attempt to discourse subtly on the nature of the things, by speaking about what the first principles are named, or about the elements which proceed from it; these things are, in my opinion, too obscure, and inaccessible to some minds. His goal was to form the spirits of his contemporaries with the doctrines of the truth: because they were being misled and had taken to worshiping each according to his imagination. Their extreme ignorance made them ignore the one God, God by nature, and to worship his creations. Some thought that the sky was god, others the disc of the sun; there were even some wretched enough to allot the glory of the supreme nature to the moon, the stars, the earth, to plants, to the watery element, birds, or to brute animals! They had come to this, and such a terrible sickness had affected all the inhabitants of the earth, when Moses came to their help and revealed himself as the initiator into knowledge of great value for all. He proclaimed clearly that there exists by nature only one Creator of the universe, and radically distinguished Him from all other realities which He had merely brought into being and existence. Considering what was useful, and as clearly as possible, neglecting every excessively subtle point, he restricted himself to deal only with that which was strictly essential.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Science and the Orthodox Church in 18th and Early 19th Century Greece: Sociological Considerations


The complete 18-page text can be read here.

This was a paper read at the XIXth International Conference for the Sociology of Religion (Tübingen, 25-29 August 1987), written and presented by Vasilios N. Makrides.

It consists of the following sections:

1. Introduction
2. Orthodox Traditionalism and its Social Impact
3. The Specific Reasons for the Conflict
4. Social Consequences of the Conflict



Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Movie Trailer: "The Current War" (2017)


The Current War is a 2017 American historical drama film directed by Alfonso Gomez-Rejon and written by Michael Mitnick. The film presents the story of the "war of the currents" between electricity titans Thomas Edison, and partners George Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla, which determined whose electrical system would power the modern world. The film stars Benedict Cumberbatch, Michael Shannon, Nicholas Hoult, Tom Holland, Katherine Waterston among others.

Saturday, June 15, 2019

On the Interpretation of the Creation Account in Genesis (St. Augustine of Hippo)


The following excerpt is taken from Augustine's The Literal Meaning of Genesis: An Unfinished Book, as translated by J. H. Taylor, S.J., Newman Press, New York, 1982. Although this work was written in AD 401, you will notice that Augustine's understanding of "literal" is quite different from today's notion of a "literal interpretation of Genesis" as claimed by young-earth creationists. On the contrary, you will see that Augustine was well aware of the teachings of "natural science" (such as it was), and was reluctant to contradict its findings, out of humility for the general revelation of God.

The Literal Meaning of Genesis

By St. Augustine of Hippo

Book 1, Chapter 19

38. Let us suppose that in explaining the words, "And God said, 'Let there be light,' and light was made," one man thinks that it was material light that was made, and another that it was spiritual. As to the actual existence of spiritual light in a spiritual creature, our faith leaves no doubt; as to the existence of material light, celestial or supercelestial, even existing before the heavens, a light which could have been followed by night, there will be nothing in such a supposition contrary to the faith until unerring truth gives the lie to it. And if that should happen, this teaching was never in Holy Scripture but was an opinion proposed by man in his ignorance. On the other hand, if reason should prove that this opinion is unquestionably true, it will still be uncertain whether this sense was intended by the sacred writer when he used the words quoted above, or whether he meant something else no less true. And if the general drift of the passage shows that the sacred writer did not intend this teaching, the other, which he did intend, will not thereby be false; indeed, it will be true and more worth knowing. On the other hand, if the tenor of the words of Scripture does not militate against our taking this teaching as the mind of the writer, we shall still have to enquire whether he could not have meant something else besides. And if we find that he could have meant something else also, it will not be clear which of the two meanings he intended. And there is no difficulty if he is thought to have wished both interpretations if both are supported by clear indications in the context.